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    To prevent pathogens (green) from entering the plant through the stomata, these pores are closed. The receptor FLS recognises the pathogen and opens the ion channel OSCA, which allows calcium to flow into the cell. The calcium activates a kinase (CPK), which then opens the anion channel SLAC. This initiates the closing of the stomata.

    Plants can defend themselves against harmful fungi and bacteria. An international research team describes in the journal "Nature" the signal chain with which they react to such dangers.

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    UWE-4 in its orbit around the Earth.

    UWE-4, the experimental satellite of the University of Würzburg, has set new standards with its electric propulsion system in a worldwide premiere for pico-satellites by changing its orbit in a targeted way.

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    A specimen of Pabulatrix pabulatricula, which until recently was considered extinct.

    An oak forest in Lower Franconia has caused a small sensation in zoology: A moth was discovered there that was considered extinct.

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    Resting Chlamydia (left; bright circles), which are held without glutamine. After the addition of glutamine (right) the bacteria enter the division stages (darker circles).

    If chlamydiae want to multiply in a human cell, the first thing they need is a lot of glutamine. Würzburg researchers have clarified how the pathogenic bacteria obtain this substance.

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    Left two sperm-forming cells expanded with ExM-SIM and imaged with a diffraction limited microscope. On the right, a detailed 3D image of a single synaptonemal complex. The 3D information is colour-coded, the measuring bar on the left corresponds to 25 micrometres, the bar on the right to three micrometres.

    New details are known about an important cell structure: For the first time, two Würzburg research groups have been able to map the synaptonemal complex three-dimensionally with a resolution of 20 to 30 nanometres.

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    An island of the Azores: It is an example of an underwater volcano that has reached the sea surface. The crater is clearly visible.

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are possible deep down in the sea – although the water masses exert enormous pressure there. An international team reports in the journal "Nature Geoscience" how this can happen.

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