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Good teaching is achieved in a variety of ways:

  • The driving principle of this field is based on the constructive alignment model of Biggs and Tang, but the broader framework must also be taken into account. This framework has a direct impact on teaching and should thus be analyzed in any pedagogical planning process.

  • Learning objectives are identified based on the constructive alignment model and the framework conditions of teaching. These learning objectives determine the type of teaching and learning activities employed in the course.

  • Meanwhile, the course exam should be adapted according to the learning objectives and the course-specific forms of teaching and learning.

  • A formative and/or summative evaluation can be carried out with the students to determine whether their learning efforts have been successful.

Constructive Alignment

The didactic model developed by Biggs and Tang is of great relevance in the field of higher education. It can be used to systematically plan one’s course, from learning objectives all the way to the exam.

Framework Conditions

There exist a number of factors over which you have no control, but which may affect your course. A precise analysis of the so-called “field conditions” of teaching is therefore invaluable prior to didactic planning.

Learning Goals

What abilities should students possess by the end of a course that they had not previously mastered? The answer to this question depends upon, among other things, which methods you employ, as well as what skills you hope to test and how you intend to do so.

Teaching and Learning Activities

The formulation of your learning objectives dictates what students should ideally be doing in your course. In specific teaching situations, knowledge of the largest possible pool of methods to draw from can also help you to effectively deviate from your initial learning plan, if necessary. Additionally, it enables you to confidently respond to changes in real time.


In the context of constructive alignment, the learning goals determine what knowledge students should be able to present in the exam. Not all types of exam are equally suitable for testing a specific ability. However, it is important to keep the general conditions of teaching and learning in mind at all times, as they may not always allow for the ideal form of examination.


Evaluations are important to find out if your approaches to learning achieved the desired results. Although test results can provide evidence of success, they rarely illuminate the specific causes of failed learning efforts. Knowledge about learning failures forms the basis for the gradual optimization of your course.