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Universität Würzburg


The final step in constructive alignment is to specifically tailor the form of the course exam to the course learning objectives – in the words of Biggs and Tangs: “The logic is stunningly obvious: say what you want students to be able to do, teach them to do it and then see if they can, in fact, do it.” (Biggs/Tang 2011, p. 206).

Here, you should once more allow yourself to be guided by the verbs used to describe the learning objectives: If the students must be able to analyze something by the end of the course, they must also be provided with sufficient opportunity to conduct such an analysis in the course itself, and it follows that the exam itself must also consist of this analysis. Only when the learning objectives, teaching and learning methodology, and exams are coordinated in such a way can we speak of a course that is “perfectly aligned” (see ibid., p. 163). A logical consequence of successful alignment is that for students, the difference between the teaching and learning method that comprises the course and the examination at the end of the semester is hardly detectable.

The choice of the appropriate type of exam depends to a large extent on the learning objectives which you have set.

Examination forms and types

The focus on competence, introduced into the landscape of higher education by the Bologna reform, has been accompanied by a fundamental reorientation from a focus on input (knowledge transfer) to one on output, i.e. learning outcomes or competences.

Competence orientation

The ASPO or LASPO (general study and examination regulations) features some paragraphs addressing the execution of examinations. Here, the evaluation of examinations is also specified.

Exam regulations

Students who have completed a part of or all of their studies outside of JMU can submit a request for recognition of their coursework and examination results. A prerequisite for the recognition of such accomplishments is that no significant differences exist with regard to the acquired competences (learning outcomes) (cf. BayHSchG, Art. 63). This means that the learning outcomes achieved in non-JMU courses must be the same as those achieved in the corresponding JMU courses/curriculum.

One may contact the Examination Office (Prüfungsamt/ Ref. 2.3) for all questions regarding examinations, registration dates and deadlines, and the implementation of examination regulations (ASPO/LASPO and FSB).

Here you can find all the information about JMU’s recognition of study and examinations that have been completed at the university level both within and outside of Germany.