IC pioneers such as Prof. Dr. Jürgen Handke (English Linguistics, University of Marburg), Prof. Dr. Jörn Loviscach (Engineering Mathematics, Bielefeld College), and Prof. Dr. Christian Spannagel (Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Heidelberg University of Education) regularly provide accounts of their experiences with the creation of instructional videos. One of their central themes is the question of the layout of the recordings. Jörn Loviscach in particular points out that perfectionism is unnecessary and can even be a hindrance to the learning process.
Therefore, instead of re-enacting lectures in a separate room, investing copious amounts of time to produce videos as accurately as possible, Loviscach recommends filming a real lecture with screencast software (programs that record the screen/SMART Board content) without tedious reworking. For one, this increases the authenticity of the videos, as the lectures are shot in front of an audience. Furthermore, the lecturer’s own fault tolerance is much higher than in the office. Nor are elaborate productions worthwhile when viewed from a teaching perspective: although “perceived learning” increases through rhetorical skill and impeccable presentation, this does not in fact equate to “more” learning, as Shana Carpenter et al. were able to ascertain. The perfect lecture is actually disadvantageous when students develop the mistaken belief that they have understood the content based on rhetorically skillful explanations, but are not able to reproduce or pass on the knowledge themselves. Derek Muller has also found that professional presenters mislead audiences into accepting mediated content without further reflection, and in doing so may even reinforce superficial knowledge and misunderstanding of concepts.
IC pioneers are meanwhile in agreement that the successful implementation of the IC requires more than the simple provision of videos. In isolation, the viewing of videos leads to a “lean back attitude” as well as opportunities for students to be distracted by other internet content – and thus to purely passive consumption without active knowledge acquisition. The key to success is rather a “lean forward attitude”, which can be achieved through interruptions in the video in the form of interposed questions or fill-in-the-blanks scripts. This claim is scientifically substantiated by Bjork et al., who were able to show that “desirable difficulties”, that is disturbances of various kinds during the learning process, positively affect long-term learning.
Handke, Loviscach, and Spannagel recommend a video length of two to fifteen minutes depending on the complexity of the topic; the workload for the students should be four to five videos per session.